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Apple II
Technical Notes
                                                  Developer Technical Support

Apple IIe
#8:    Known Anomalies of Enhanced IIe ROMs

Revised by:    Matt Deatherage                                  November 1988
Revised by:    Cameron Birse                                    February 1986

This Technical Note describes three problems with the Enhanced IIe ROMs and 
some suggested solutions.

The following three anomalies are known to occur when the Enhanced IIe ROMs 
are present:

1.    Some Apple II peripheral cards do not handle interrupts well since 
      Apple II family members before the IIc and Enhanced IIe did not 
      handle them very well either.  If a card that cannot handle 
      interrupts is used on the Enhanced Apple IIe, any interrupt is 
      very likely to crash the system.  A common example of this would 
      be older, non-interruptible printer cards used with a Mouse card 
      in the system.  You can often work around this problem by 
      disabling interrupts before printing to such a printer card.

2.    There may be some problems when using the ROMs with communications 
      packages.  These problems are due to the way the 80-column 
      firmware switches into 40-column mode.  By sending a Control-Q 
      through COUT, the firmware switches into 40-column mode.  A simple 
      solution to this would be to send an Escape-Control-D sequence, 
      which disables the control functions.  This solution will remain 
      in effect until either the 80-column card is re-initialized by 
      PR#3 or an Escape-Control-E sequence is sent through COUT.  
      Another solution would be to simply not allow Control-Q sequences 
      to get through to COUT by filtering them before they get there.

3.    Many developers using double high-resolution graphics may wish to 
      use 40-column text displays so the text can be read on a 
      television set.  There are a couple of possibilities:  

      A.    You can define your own double high-resolution character set 
            with any size characters you desire, then plot them on the 
            double high-resolution screen.

      B.    You can print text to the Apple IIe text screen and toggle the 
            screen on to display it.

            Note:    There is no way to display four lines of 40-column 
            text at the bottom of the double high-resolution screen 
            in mixed mode since the 80-column hardware must be active 
            while double high-resolution graphics are being 

            To use the second method, however, does require some special 

            The Apple IIe scroll routine continues to use the window 
            parameters when scrolling, but uses the 80COL soft switch to 
            determine if it should scroll the 80- or 40-column screen.  
            Since the firmware has initialized a 40-column window, the 
            scroll routines will move only the first 40 columns.  But, the 
            80COL flag has been turned on for double high-resolution, 
            therefore, the scrolling routine takes every even column from 
            auxiliary memory and every odd column from main memory.  As a 
            result, only the first 40 columns get scrolled, 20 columns from 
            auxiliary memory and 20 columns from main memory.

            One possible solution to the problem is to write your own 
            scroll routines.  Another might be to write to the screen so 
            that scrolling will not occur.  But there is yet another 
            solution.  Turn on the full 80-column mode with a PR#3 or the 
            equivalent.  Now print your text to COUT in the normal manner, 
            being careful not to exceed 40 characters per line.  The 80 
            column firmware will scroll everything properly.  When you are 
            ready to display text, send a Control-Q sequence through COUT 
            to switch to 40 columns.  When you are ready to return to 
            double high-resolution mode, send a Control-R sequence to COUT.

            When switching modes, a momentary glitch may occur.  If you 
            send the Control-Q sequence to COUT while still in graphics 
            mode, the screen will go to regular single high-resolution mode 
            before finally going to text mode.  If you switch to text mode 
            first, the text will be in 80-column mode (with 40 columns 
            displayed on the left half of the screen) before ultimately 
            going to 40-column mode.  The same potential glitch may occur 
            going back to double high-resolution mode.  The glitch will be 
            only momentary and may not present any problem for your 

Further Reference
    o    Apple IIe Technical Reference Manual

All content Copyright ©1984-2003, Terence J. Boldt, unless noted otherwise.